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Logic rarely enough. People are involved.
Identifies four buying roles:
- economic buyer: gives final approval. Concerned with bottom line (strategic position, competitiveness, profitability, meeting business goals and objectives). Usually only one per sale (but 1 may be committee). Discretionary use of funds; veto power. Primary question: "what will be the overall performance improvement and return on this investment?" (85).
- user buyer: judges impact on operational performance. f/x on potentially affected organizational units. will be directly affected by project, may have subjective response to proposal; important for implementation & continuing relationships. Often several in number. Primary question: "How will the project affect my job and those I manage?" (86)
- technical buyer: to screen out; concerned with quant aspects (ROI, Price, Match of specs); often several/many. Judges by quantifiable; makes recommendations, acts as gatekeeper; can''t say yes, but can say no. Primary Question: "Do the proposed approach and qualifications meet our specifications?" (86)
- the coach: acts as guide for proposal opportunity. focus is on your success with selling opp; should dev at least one in your or buyer''s firm or outside both. Can be found in firm, outside, in BoD. Wants you to win, provides/interprets info. (your ally). Primary Question: "How can we pull this off, together?" (87).
- the ratifier: ''blesses'' the recommendation of the economic buyer. Concerned with available resources and their allocation as well as potential environ/cultural conflicts in organization. If exists, usually only one in corp; sometimes several in gov. Higher up. Ratifies recommendation, acts as gatekeeper, has veto power. Primary Question: "Will this project and these proposers meet my broader ''political'' and/or personal objectives?" (89).
S1 perception varies by buyer and buying role. S2 will eliminate everyone''s perception of S1. Perceived benefits accruing from achieving S2 vary by user and buying role.
- classifying each member of buying team according to role/roles in buying situation. Ratifier, in his opinion, can only play one additional role: coach.
- Identify each buyer''s perception of S1 remembering perception conditioned by buying role, position in organization, and personality.
- ID for each buyer benefits from S2
- Try to develop at least one coach. (93)