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Bravo, E. (1993). The Hazards of Leaving Out Users. In D. Schuler (Ed.), Participatory design : principles and practices (pp. 3-11). Hillsdale N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Opening anecdote: new carpeting, owners didn''t want it marred. Nailed secretaries'' chairs to floor to prevent marring. Secretaries couldn''t perform jobs. The need to consult users.
Cites plethora of health-related issues often arising from poor consideration of user needs.
Notes three issues: not understanding user needs, user needs may be understood but in "tech-ese," design without considering impact on user; software that manipulates user; software spies upon user.
Treats user as object rather than subject. High cost of stress. "just users, just women, just secretaries."
Cautions about concept of participatory design: make sure users on all levels participating in decision-making pricess,